Response to @rikitikitavi: "Also CRISPR - the future of humanity. Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier."
"Cytogeneticist Barbara McClintock discovered transposable elements in the DNA sequence and used it to demonstrate the suppression or expression of genetic information by 1953, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983. Immunologist Kizzmekia Corbett identified a simple method of producing spike proteins that are stabilized in a way that renders them more immunogenic and manufacturable in 2014 while researching vaccines for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and later partnered with Moderna to use the messenger RNA technology to develop their COVID19 vaccine. Hungarian biochemist Katalin Karikó discovered the nucleoside modifications that suppress the immunogenicity of RNA in 2006, and later licensed that technology to BioNTech to develop the vaccines for COVID19. Karikó's daughter, Zsuzsanna Francia, later won gold medals in the 2008 and 2012 Olympics in the women's eight rowing event. Vaccinologist Nita Patel left AstraZeneca to join a biotechnology start-up in 2015, and there led an all-woman team that designed and characterized almost two-dozen variants of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the process of using recombinant DNA to develop Novavax's COVID19 vaccine. Biochemist Jennifer Doudna and geneticist Emmanuelle Charpentier developed a genome editing technique by re-engineering clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated protein 9, or CRISPR-Cas9, which is regarded as one of the most significant discoveries in the history of biology, and for which the two were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020."
- Jennifer Doudna (DOWD-na)
- Emmanuelle Charpentier (SHAR-pen-teer)